Research Article
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Seasonal variation of chemical content and heavy metal levels in raw milk

Year 2023, Volume: 7 Issue: 1, 30 - 39, 30.06.2023
https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.1244032

Abstract

Aksaray province is an important raw milk supplier for the dairy industry. In this respect, it is important to examine the milk quality of the region. In this case, milk was collected over a nine-month period from 413 cows at seven distinct locations in three different seasons. The percentages of fat, lactose, protein, dry matter, somatic cells, and the levels of heavy metals like arsenic, aluminum, cadmium, lead, and nickel were examined. All of these components and their levels of seasonal variations in milk were also researched.
Considering the average values of the parameters of the milk collected from all farms evaluated within the scope of the study, significant changes were detected. Significant changes were observed for fat, lactose, total solids, somatic cells, arsenic, aluminum, nickel, cadmium and lead. Only the protein value did not change depending on the seasons. The details of the changes on the basis of farms are also examined in the study.

Supporting Institution

Aksaray University Coordinating Office for Scientific Research Projects (Aksaray, TURKEY)

Thanks

I would like to thank Büşra ÖZBAY for the statistical analysis of all my studies.

References

  • [1] Gülzari, Ş. Ö., Owade, J. O., Ndambi, O. A. (2020). A review of interventions and parameters used to address milk quality in eastern and southern Africa. Food Control, 116, 107300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107300
  • [2] Ziarati, P., Shirkhan, F., Mostafidi, M., Zahedi, M. T. (2018). An overview of the heavy metal contamination in milk and dairy products. Acta scientific pharmaceutical sciences, 2(7): 1-14.
  • [3] Fox, F. Fox, Uniacke- Lowe, T., McSweeney, P.L.H., O’Mahony, J.A. (2015). Dairy chemistry and biochemistry, Springer, Ireland Second Edition.
  • [4] TÜİK, Süt ve Süt Ürünleri Üretim Miktarı ve Değişim Oranları Raporu, Sayı: 45747. Publication date: 14.02.2022. Access address: https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=S%C3%BCt-ve-S%C3%BCt-%C3%9Cr%C3%BCnleri-%C3%9Cretimi-Aral%C4%B1k-2021-45747&dil=1. Date of access: 30.12.2022
  • [5] Lindmark-Månsson, H., Fondén, R., Pettersson H.E. (2003) 409-425.Composition of Swedish dairy milk. International Dairy Journal, 13(6): 409-425. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(03)00032-3
  • [6] Lock, A., Garnsworthy, P. (2003). Seasonal variation in milk conjugated linoleic acid and Δ9-desaturase activity in dairy cows. Livestock Production Science, 79(1): 47-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00118-5
  • [7] Dozet, N., Stanisic, M., Bijielzac, S. (1978). Studies on quality of milk in various regions of production. 20. Int. Dairy Congr. P, 41, 42.
  • [8] Qin, N., Faludi, G., Beauclercq, S., Pitt, J., Desnica, N., Pétursdóttir, A., Stergiadis, S. (2021). Macromineral and trace element concentrations and their seasonal variation in milk from organic and conventional dairy herds. Food chemistry, 359, 129865. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129865
  • [9] Kozhanova, N., Sarsembayeva, N., Lozowicka, B., Kozhanov, Z. (2021). Seasonal content of heavy metals in the “soil–feed–milk–manure” system in horse husbandry in Kazakhstan. Veterinary World, 2947. https://doi:10.14202/vetworld.2021.2947-2956
  • [10] Järup, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British medical bulletin, 68(1): 167-182.
  • [11] Duruibe, J.O., Ogwuegbu M.O., Egwurugwu, J.N. (2007). Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. International Journal of physical sciences, 2(5): 112-118.
  • [12] Ahamad, S.R., Raish, M., Ahmad, A., Shakeel, F. (2017). Potential health benefits and metabolomics of camel milk by GC-MS and ICP-MS. Biological trace element research, 175: 322-330. http://doi:10.1007/s12011-016-0771-7
  • [13] TS ISO 9622. (23.10.2015). Milk and liquid milk products – Guidelines for the application of midinfrared spectrometry.
  • [14] TS EN ISO 13366-2. (27.03.2007). Milk-Enumeration of somatic cells – Part 2: Guidance on the operation of fluoro – opto – electronic counters.
  • [15] Simsek, O., Gültekin, R., Öksüz, O., Kurultay, S. (2000). The effect of environmental pollution on the heavy metal content of raw milk. Food/Nahrung, 44(5): 360-363. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3803(20001001)44:5<360::AID-FOOD360>3.0.CO;2-G
  • [16] Licata, P., Trombetta, D., Cristani, M., Giofrè, F., Martino, D., Calò M., Naccari, F. (2004). Levels of “toxic” and “essential” metals in samples of bovine milk from various dairy farms in Calabria, Italy. Environment international, 30(1): 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00139-9
  • [17] Pavlovic, I., Sikiric, M., Havranek, J.L., Plavljanic, N., Brajenovic, N. (2004). Lead and cadmium levels in raw cow's milk from an industrialised Croatian region determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Czech journal of animal science, 49(4): 164-168. https://doi.org/10.17221/4295-CJAS
  • [18] Ozrenk, E., Inci, S.S. (2008). The effect of seasonal variation on the composition of cow milk in Van Province. Pakistan Journal of nutrition, 7(1): 161-164.
  • [19] Heck, J.M.L., Van Valenberg, H.F.J., Dijkstra J., Van Hooijdonk, A.C.M. (2009). Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition. Journal of dairy science, 92(10): 4745-4755. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2146
  • [20] Musaad, A.M. Faye B., Al-Mutairi, S.E. (2013). Seasonal and physiological variation of gross composition of camel milk in Saudi Arabia. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 618-624. https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i8.16095
  • [21] Guo, M.R., Dixon, P.H., Park, Y.W., Gilmore, J.A., Kindstedt, P.S. (2021). Seasonal changes in the chemical composition of commingled goat milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 84: E79-E83. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)70201-9
  • [22] Celano, G., Calasso, M., Costantino, G., Vacca, M., Ressa, A., Nikoloudaki, O., De Palo, P., Calabrese, F.M., Gobbetti, M., De Angelis M. (2022). Effect of Seasonality on Microbiological Variability of Raw Cow Milk from Apulian Dairy Farms in Italy. Microbiology Spectrum, 10(5): e00514-22. https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.00514-22
  • [23] Zou, Z., Duley, J.A., Cowley, D.M., Reed, S., Arachchige, B.J., Shaw, P.N., Bansal, N. (2022). Comprehensive biochemical and proteomic characterization of seasonal Australian camel milk. Food Chemistry, 381: 132297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132297
  • [24] Bernabucci, U., Basirico, L., Morera, P., Dipasquale, D., Vitali, A., Cappelli, F.P., Calamari, L. (2015). Effect of summer season on milk protein fractions in Holstein cows. Journal of dairy science, 98(3) :1815-1827. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8788
  • [25] Parmar, P., Lopez-Villalobos, N., Tobin, J.T., Murphy, E., McDonagh, A., Crowley, S.V., Shalloo, L. (2020). The effect of compositional changes due to seasonal variation on milk density and the determination of season-based density conversion factors for use in the dairy industry. Foods, 9(8): 1004. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081004
  • [26] Margatho, G., Rodríguez-Estévez, V., Medeiros, L., Simões, J. (2018). Seasonal variation of Serrana goat milk contents in mountain grazing system for cheese manufacture. Rev. Med. Vet, 169: 157-165.
  • [27] Toghdory, A., Ghoorchi, T., Asadi, M., Bokharaeian, M., Najafi M., Ghassemi Nejad, J. (2022). Effects of Environmental Temperature and Humidity on Milk Composition, Microbial Load, and Somatic Cells in Milk of Holstein Dairy Cows in the Northeast Regions of Iran. Animals, 12(18): 2484. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12182484
  • [28] Hajmohammadi, M., Valizadeh, R., Ebdalabadi, M.N., Naserian, A., Oliveira, C.A.F. (2021). Seasonal variations in some quality parameters of milk produced in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. Food Science and Technology, 41: 718-722. https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.35120
  • [29] Gökçe, G., Kayaalp, G.T., Güney, M.Ç. (2020). The Effect of Season, Lactation Number and Type Score on Somatic Cell Count in Black and White Cattle. Turkish Journal of Agriculture-Food Science and Technology, 8(9): 2017-2020. https://doi.org/10.24925/turjaf.v8i9.2017-2020.3728
  • [30] Zwierzchowski, G., Ametaj, B.N. (2018). Minerals and heavy metals in the whole raw milk of dairy cows from different management systems and countries of origin: A meta-analytical study. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 66(26): 6877-6888. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b00904
  • [31] WHO. (2010). Exposure of cadmium: a major public health. Geneva: Public Health and Environment World Health Organization.
  • [32] Usta, H.T., Güner, A. (2006). Ankara’da tüketime sunulan süt ve beyaz peynirlerde ağır metal kontaminasyonu. Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(2): 20-28.
  • [33] Abou-Arab, A.A.K. (1991). Microbiological and compositional Quality of Dairy products in relation to some pollutants. PhD. Thesis, Ain-Shams University, Faculty of Agriculture.
  • [34] Bilandžić, N., Dokić, M., Sedak, M., Božica, S., Varenina, I., Knežević Z., Benić, M. (2011). Trace element levels in raw milk from northern and southern regions of Croatia. Food chemistry, 127(1): 63-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.084
  • [35] Yan, M., Niu, C., Li, X., Wang, F., Jiang, S., Li, K., Yao, Z. (2022). Heavy metal levels in cow's milk and its health risk assessment: A systematic review of studies in China. Science of The Total Environment, 158161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158161
  • [36] Hasan, G., Kabir, M., Miah, M. (2022). Determination of heavy metals in raw and pasteurized liquid milk of Bangladesh to assess the potential health risks. Food Res, 6(1): 233-237. https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.6(1).191
  • [37] Shahbazi, Y., Ahmadi, F., Fakhari, F. (2016). Voltammetric determination of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Se in milk and dairy products collected from Iran: An emphasis on permissible limits and risk assessment of exposure to heavy metals. Food chemistry, 192: 1060-1067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.07.123
  • [38] Enb, A., Abou Donia, M.A., Abd-Rabou, N.S., Abou-Arab, A.A.K., El-Senaity, M.H. (2009). Chemical composition of raw milk and heavy metals behavior during processing of milk products. Global veterinaria, 3(3): 268-275.
  • [39] González-Montaña, J.R., Senís, E., Gutiérrez, A., Prieto, F. (2012). Cadmium and lead in bovine milk in the mining area of the Caudal River (Spain). Environmental monitoring and assessment, 184: 4029-4034.
  • [40] Tajkarimi, M., Faghih, M.A., Poursoltani, H., Nejad, A.S., Motallebi, A.A., Mahdavi, H. (2008). Lead residue levels in raw milk from different regions of Iran. Food control, 19(5): 495-498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.05.015
  • [41] Göncü, S., Gökçe, G., Yeşil, M.I. (2022). Akdeniz İklim Koşullarında Mevsimin İnek, Koyun ve Keçi Süt Kompozisyonu Üzerine Etkisi. Kadirli Uygulamalı Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 2(2): 230-243.
  • [42] Yörükoğlu, A.B. (2019). İzmirde yüksek kapasiteli bazı süt işleme tesislerine gelen inek sütlerinin bileşimi ve kalitesi ile bunların mevsim ve yöreye göre değişimi. MSc thesis, Ege Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İzmir.
  • [43] Önal, A.R., Özkan, M., Tuna, Y.T. (2021). Siyah Alaca süt sığırlarında mevsim ve laktasyon sırasının sütün bileşimi ve kalitesine etkisi. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 18(2): 368-374. https://doi.org/10.33462/jotaf.831567
  • [44] Türk Gıda Kodeksi Çiğ Süt Ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş İçme Sütleri Tebliği, Tebliğ No: 2000/6, 14 Şubat 2000-Sayı:23964.
  • [45] Türk Gıda Kodeksi Gıda Maddelerindeki Bulaşanların Maksimum Limitleri Hakkında Tebliği, Tebliğ No: 2008/26, 17 Mayıs 2008-Sayı: 26879.
Year 2023, Volume: 7 Issue: 1, 30 - 39, 30.06.2023
https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.1244032

Abstract

References

  • [1] Gülzari, Ş. Ö., Owade, J. O., Ndambi, O. A. (2020). A review of interventions and parameters used to address milk quality in eastern and southern Africa. Food Control, 116, 107300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107300
  • [2] Ziarati, P., Shirkhan, F., Mostafidi, M., Zahedi, M. T. (2018). An overview of the heavy metal contamination in milk and dairy products. Acta scientific pharmaceutical sciences, 2(7): 1-14.
  • [3] Fox, F. Fox, Uniacke- Lowe, T., McSweeney, P.L.H., O’Mahony, J.A. (2015). Dairy chemistry and biochemistry, Springer, Ireland Second Edition.
  • [4] TÜİK, Süt ve Süt Ürünleri Üretim Miktarı ve Değişim Oranları Raporu, Sayı: 45747. Publication date: 14.02.2022. Access address: https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=S%C3%BCt-ve-S%C3%BCt-%C3%9Cr%C3%BCnleri-%C3%9Cretimi-Aral%C4%B1k-2021-45747&dil=1. Date of access: 30.12.2022
  • [5] Lindmark-Månsson, H., Fondén, R., Pettersson H.E. (2003) 409-425.Composition of Swedish dairy milk. International Dairy Journal, 13(6): 409-425. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(03)00032-3
  • [6] Lock, A., Garnsworthy, P. (2003). Seasonal variation in milk conjugated linoleic acid and Δ9-desaturase activity in dairy cows. Livestock Production Science, 79(1): 47-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00118-5
  • [7] Dozet, N., Stanisic, M., Bijielzac, S. (1978). Studies on quality of milk in various regions of production. 20. Int. Dairy Congr. P, 41, 42.
  • [8] Qin, N., Faludi, G., Beauclercq, S., Pitt, J., Desnica, N., Pétursdóttir, A., Stergiadis, S. (2021). Macromineral and trace element concentrations and their seasonal variation in milk from organic and conventional dairy herds. Food chemistry, 359, 129865. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129865
  • [9] Kozhanova, N., Sarsembayeva, N., Lozowicka, B., Kozhanov, Z. (2021). Seasonal content of heavy metals in the “soil–feed–milk–manure” system in horse husbandry in Kazakhstan. Veterinary World, 2947. https://doi:10.14202/vetworld.2021.2947-2956
  • [10] Järup, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British medical bulletin, 68(1): 167-182.
  • [11] Duruibe, J.O., Ogwuegbu M.O., Egwurugwu, J.N. (2007). Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. International Journal of physical sciences, 2(5): 112-118.
  • [12] Ahamad, S.R., Raish, M., Ahmad, A., Shakeel, F. (2017). Potential health benefits and metabolomics of camel milk by GC-MS and ICP-MS. Biological trace element research, 175: 322-330. http://doi:10.1007/s12011-016-0771-7
  • [13] TS ISO 9622. (23.10.2015). Milk and liquid milk products – Guidelines for the application of midinfrared spectrometry.
  • [14] TS EN ISO 13366-2. (27.03.2007). Milk-Enumeration of somatic cells – Part 2: Guidance on the operation of fluoro – opto – electronic counters.
  • [15] Simsek, O., Gültekin, R., Öksüz, O., Kurultay, S. (2000). The effect of environmental pollution on the heavy metal content of raw milk. Food/Nahrung, 44(5): 360-363. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3803(20001001)44:5<360::AID-FOOD360>3.0.CO;2-G
  • [16] Licata, P., Trombetta, D., Cristani, M., Giofrè, F., Martino, D., Calò M., Naccari, F. (2004). Levels of “toxic” and “essential” metals in samples of bovine milk from various dairy farms in Calabria, Italy. Environment international, 30(1): 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00139-9
  • [17] Pavlovic, I., Sikiric, M., Havranek, J.L., Plavljanic, N., Brajenovic, N. (2004). Lead and cadmium levels in raw cow's milk from an industrialised Croatian region determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Czech journal of animal science, 49(4): 164-168. https://doi.org/10.17221/4295-CJAS
  • [18] Ozrenk, E., Inci, S.S. (2008). The effect of seasonal variation on the composition of cow milk in Van Province. Pakistan Journal of nutrition, 7(1): 161-164.
  • [19] Heck, J.M.L., Van Valenberg, H.F.J., Dijkstra J., Van Hooijdonk, A.C.M. (2009). Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition. Journal of dairy science, 92(10): 4745-4755. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2146
  • [20] Musaad, A.M. Faye B., Al-Mutairi, S.E. (2013). Seasonal and physiological variation of gross composition of camel milk in Saudi Arabia. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 618-624. https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i8.16095
  • [21] Guo, M.R., Dixon, P.H., Park, Y.W., Gilmore, J.A., Kindstedt, P.S. (2021). Seasonal changes in the chemical composition of commingled goat milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 84: E79-E83. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)70201-9
  • [22] Celano, G., Calasso, M., Costantino, G., Vacca, M., Ressa, A., Nikoloudaki, O., De Palo, P., Calabrese, F.M., Gobbetti, M., De Angelis M. (2022). Effect of Seasonality on Microbiological Variability of Raw Cow Milk from Apulian Dairy Farms in Italy. Microbiology Spectrum, 10(5): e00514-22. https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.00514-22
  • [23] Zou, Z., Duley, J.A., Cowley, D.M., Reed, S., Arachchige, B.J., Shaw, P.N., Bansal, N. (2022). Comprehensive biochemical and proteomic characterization of seasonal Australian camel milk. Food Chemistry, 381: 132297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132297
  • [24] Bernabucci, U., Basirico, L., Morera, P., Dipasquale, D., Vitali, A., Cappelli, F.P., Calamari, L. (2015). Effect of summer season on milk protein fractions in Holstein cows. Journal of dairy science, 98(3) :1815-1827. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8788
  • [25] Parmar, P., Lopez-Villalobos, N., Tobin, J.T., Murphy, E., McDonagh, A., Crowley, S.V., Shalloo, L. (2020). The effect of compositional changes due to seasonal variation on milk density and the determination of season-based density conversion factors for use in the dairy industry. Foods, 9(8): 1004. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081004
  • [26] Margatho, G., Rodríguez-Estévez, V., Medeiros, L., Simões, J. (2018). Seasonal variation of Serrana goat milk contents in mountain grazing system for cheese manufacture. Rev. Med. Vet, 169: 157-165.
  • [27] Toghdory, A., Ghoorchi, T., Asadi, M., Bokharaeian, M., Najafi M., Ghassemi Nejad, J. (2022). Effects of Environmental Temperature and Humidity on Milk Composition, Microbial Load, and Somatic Cells in Milk of Holstein Dairy Cows in the Northeast Regions of Iran. Animals, 12(18): 2484. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12182484
  • [28] Hajmohammadi, M., Valizadeh, R., Ebdalabadi, M.N., Naserian, A., Oliveira, C.A.F. (2021). Seasonal variations in some quality parameters of milk produced in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. Food Science and Technology, 41: 718-722. https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.35120
  • [29] Gökçe, G., Kayaalp, G.T., Güney, M.Ç. (2020). The Effect of Season, Lactation Number and Type Score on Somatic Cell Count in Black and White Cattle. Turkish Journal of Agriculture-Food Science and Technology, 8(9): 2017-2020. https://doi.org/10.24925/turjaf.v8i9.2017-2020.3728
  • [30] Zwierzchowski, G., Ametaj, B.N. (2018). Minerals and heavy metals in the whole raw milk of dairy cows from different management systems and countries of origin: A meta-analytical study. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 66(26): 6877-6888. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b00904
  • [31] WHO. (2010). Exposure of cadmium: a major public health. Geneva: Public Health and Environment World Health Organization.
  • [32] Usta, H.T., Güner, A. (2006). Ankara’da tüketime sunulan süt ve beyaz peynirlerde ağır metal kontaminasyonu. Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(2): 20-28.
  • [33] Abou-Arab, A.A.K. (1991). Microbiological and compositional Quality of Dairy products in relation to some pollutants. PhD. Thesis, Ain-Shams University, Faculty of Agriculture.
  • [34] Bilandžić, N., Dokić, M., Sedak, M., Božica, S., Varenina, I., Knežević Z., Benić, M. (2011). Trace element levels in raw milk from northern and southern regions of Croatia. Food chemistry, 127(1): 63-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.084
  • [35] Yan, M., Niu, C., Li, X., Wang, F., Jiang, S., Li, K., Yao, Z. (2022). Heavy metal levels in cow's milk and its health risk assessment: A systematic review of studies in China. Science of The Total Environment, 158161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158161
  • [36] Hasan, G., Kabir, M., Miah, M. (2022). Determination of heavy metals in raw and pasteurized liquid milk of Bangladesh to assess the potential health risks. Food Res, 6(1): 233-237. https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.6(1).191
  • [37] Shahbazi, Y., Ahmadi, F., Fakhari, F. (2016). Voltammetric determination of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Se in milk and dairy products collected from Iran: An emphasis on permissible limits and risk assessment of exposure to heavy metals. Food chemistry, 192: 1060-1067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.07.123
  • [38] Enb, A., Abou Donia, M.A., Abd-Rabou, N.S., Abou-Arab, A.A.K., El-Senaity, M.H. (2009). Chemical composition of raw milk and heavy metals behavior during processing of milk products. Global veterinaria, 3(3): 268-275.
  • [39] González-Montaña, J.R., Senís, E., Gutiérrez, A., Prieto, F. (2012). Cadmium and lead in bovine milk in the mining area of the Caudal River (Spain). Environmental monitoring and assessment, 184: 4029-4034.
  • [40] Tajkarimi, M., Faghih, M.A., Poursoltani, H., Nejad, A.S., Motallebi, A.A., Mahdavi, H. (2008). Lead residue levels in raw milk from different regions of Iran. Food control, 19(5): 495-498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.05.015
  • [41] Göncü, S., Gökçe, G., Yeşil, M.I. (2022). Akdeniz İklim Koşullarında Mevsimin İnek, Koyun ve Keçi Süt Kompozisyonu Üzerine Etkisi. Kadirli Uygulamalı Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 2(2): 230-243.
  • [42] Yörükoğlu, A.B. (2019). İzmirde yüksek kapasiteli bazı süt işleme tesislerine gelen inek sütlerinin bileşimi ve kalitesi ile bunların mevsim ve yöreye göre değişimi. MSc thesis, Ege Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İzmir.
  • [43] Önal, A.R., Özkan, M., Tuna, Y.T. (2021). Siyah Alaca süt sığırlarında mevsim ve laktasyon sırasının sütün bileşimi ve kalitesine etkisi. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 18(2): 368-374. https://doi.org/10.33462/jotaf.831567
  • [44] Türk Gıda Kodeksi Çiğ Süt Ve Isıl İşlem Görmüş İçme Sütleri Tebliği, Tebliğ No: 2000/6, 14 Şubat 2000-Sayı:23964.
  • [45] Türk Gıda Kodeksi Gıda Maddelerindeki Bulaşanların Maksimum Limitleri Hakkında Tebliği, Tebliğ No: 2008/26, 17 Mayıs 2008-Sayı: 26879.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Engineering, Food Engineering
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Sena ÖZBAY 0000-0001-6024-0805

Project Number 2021-029
Publication Date June 30, 2023
Submission Date January 29, 2023
Acceptance Date June 3, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 7 Issue: 1

Cite

APA ÖZBAY, S. (2023). Seasonal variation of chemical content and heavy metal levels in raw milk. Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering, 7(1), 30-39. https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.1244032

Aksaray J. Sci. Eng. | e-ISSN: 2587-1277 | Period: Biannually | Founded: 2017 | Publisher: Aksaray University | https://asujse.aksaray.edu.tr




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