Research Article
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Year 2023, Volume: 7 Issue: 2, 40 - 52, 30.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.1087727

Abstract

References

  • [1] Perdon, A.A., Schonauer, S.L., Poutanen, K.S. (Editors). (2020). Breakfast Cereals and How They Are Made - Raw Materials, Processing, and Production (Third Edition). Cereals & Grains Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. in cooperation with Cereals & Grains Association. Pages 6-11.
  • [2] Okafor, G.I., Usman G.O. (2012). Production and evaluation of breakfast cereals from blends of african yam bean (sphenostylis stenocarpa), maize (zea mays) and defatted coconut (cocus nucifera). Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 38 (2014) 1037–1043.
  • [3] Bouvier, J.M., Campanella, O. (2014). Extrusion Processing Technology, Food & Non-food Biomaterials. Wiley Blackwell, Chichester, UK.
  • [4] Johnson, L.A. (2000). Corn: the major cereal of the Americas. In: Kulp, K., Ponte, J.G. (Eds.), Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, pp. 31-80.
  • [5] Alvarez-Jubete, L., Arendt, E.K., Gallagher, E. (2010). Nutritive value of pseudocereals and their increasing use as functional gluten-free ingredients. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 21, 106-113.
  • [6] Arendt, E.K. and Zannini, E. (2013). Cereal grains for the food and beverage industries. Woodhead Publishing Limited, 80 High Street, Sawston, Cambridge CB22 3HJ, UK (Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition: Number 248). Pages 91-100,
  • [7] Gebrezgi, D. (2019). Proximate composition of complementary food prepared from maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max) and Moringa leaves in Tigray, Ethiopia. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 5: 1627779. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2019.1627779
  • [8] Nadathur, S.R., Wanasundara, J.P.D., Scanlin, L. (Editors). (2017). Sustainable Protein Sources. Academic Press, an imprint of Elsevier, 125 London Wall, London EC2Y 5AS, United Kingdom. Pages 39, 40, 75..
  • [9] Hettiarachchy, N.S., Ju, Z.Y., Siebenmorgen, T., Sharp, R.N. (2000). Rice: production, processing and utilization. In: Kulp, K., Ponte, J.G. (Eds.), Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, pp. 203-221.
  • [10] Delcour, J., Hoseney, R.C. (2010). Principles of Food Science and Technology. AACC International Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA.
  • [11] Okafor, G.I. and Usman, G.O. (2012). Production and evaluation of breakfast cereals from blends of african yam bean (sphenostylis stenocarpa), maize (zea mays) and defatted coconut (cocus nucifera). Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 38 (2014) 1037–1043.
  • [12] Arendt, E.K., Zannini, E. (2013). Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industry. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge CB22 3HJ UK.
  • [13] Sawant, A.A., Thakor, N.J., Swami, S.B., Divate, A.D. (2013). Physical and sensory characteristics of Ready-To-Eat food prepared from finger millet based composite mixer by extrusion. Agric. Eng. Int. CIGR J. 15 (1), 100-105.
  • [14] AOAC. (2002). Official Methods of Analysis (30th edition). Washington: Association of Analytical Chemists.

Development and Statistical Optimization of Flakes from Selected Local Food Ingredients

Year 2023, Volume: 7 Issue: 2, 40 - 52, 30.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.1087727

Abstract

Flakes are instant breakfast meals, primarily produced from mono-cereals (corn, wheat, rice, and/or oats), processed with added flavor and fortified with vitamins and minerals. They are one of the several forms of cold cereals that are consumed immediately after mixing with milk, yogurt, or fruit. In this study, value-added instant flakes were developed, characterized and optimized; from blends of corn, millet, and soybean. A three-component constrained optimal (custom) mixture experimental design, with 30 randomized experimental runs, was employed for the formulation. The formulation design constraints were: corn flour (30% - 45%), millet flour (10% - 25%), and soybean flour (5% - 20%). Other components of the formulation, which were kept constant, were: water (19%), sugar (8%), malt (2%), egg (3%), sweet potato extract (3%), ginger (2%), and moringa seed powder (3%). The formulated flakes were analyzed and evaluated for the proximate, physicochemical and sensory characteristics using standard procedures. The result of the numerical optimization gave optimized instant flakes with an overall desirability index of 0.637, based on the set optimization goals and individual quality desirability indices. The optimal instant flake was obtained from 30.5 % corn flour, 11.2 % millet flour, 18.3 % soybean meal. The quality properties of this optimal instant flake were: 1.83 % moisture content, 9.05 % fat content, 1.74 % ash content, 2.66 % crude fibre, 38.0 % crude protein, 46.7 % carbohydrate, 420 kcal energy value and 6.28 overall acceptability. The result of the study showed that the formulated instant flakes were of high quality and that improving the nutritional quality of flakes is possible through grain-to-grain composite formulation. It is recommended that further study be carried out on the formulation of nutritionally improved instant flakes using other nutritionally rich grains and legumes such as groundnut, sesame seed, melon seed etc. Enrichment of flakes with protein-rich sources will result in flakes product with improved nutrient quality that meets the consumer’s dietary needs.

References

  • [1] Perdon, A.A., Schonauer, S.L., Poutanen, K.S. (Editors). (2020). Breakfast Cereals and How They Are Made - Raw Materials, Processing, and Production (Third Edition). Cereals & Grains Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. in cooperation with Cereals & Grains Association. Pages 6-11.
  • [2] Okafor, G.I., Usman G.O. (2012). Production and evaluation of breakfast cereals from blends of african yam bean (sphenostylis stenocarpa), maize (zea mays) and defatted coconut (cocus nucifera). Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 38 (2014) 1037–1043.
  • [3] Bouvier, J.M., Campanella, O. (2014). Extrusion Processing Technology, Food & Non-food Biomaterials. Wiley Blackwell, Chichester, UK.
  • [4] Johnson, L.A. (2000). Corn: the major cereal of the Americas. In: Kulp, K., Ponte, J.G. (Eds.), Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, pp. 31-80.
  • [5] Alvarez-Jubete, L., Arendt, E.K., Gallagher, E. (2010). Nutritive value of pseudocereals and their increasing use as functional gluten-free ingredients. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 21, 106-113.
  • [6] Arendt, E.K. and Zannini, E. (2013). Cereal grains for the food and beverage industries. Woodhead Publishing Limited, 80 High Street, Sawston, Cambridge CB22 3HJ, UK (Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition: Number 248). Pages 91-100,
  • [7] Gebrezgi, D. (2019). Proximate composition of complementary food prepared from maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max) and Moringa leaves in Tigray, Ethiopia. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 5: 1627779. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2019.1627779
  • [8] Nadathur, S.R., Wanasundara, J.P.D., Scanlin, L. (Editors). (2017). Sustainable Protein Sources. Academic Press, an imprint of Elsevier, 125 London Wall, London EC2Y 5AS, United Kingdom. Pages 39, 40, 75..
  • [9] Hettiarachchy, N.S., Ju, Z.Y., Siebenmorgen, T., Sharp, R.N. (2000). Rice: production, processing and utilization. In: Kulp, K., Ponte, J.G. (Eds.), Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, pp. 203-221.
  • [10] Delcour, J., Hoseney, R.C. (2010). Principles of Food Science and Technology. AACC International Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA.
  • [11] Okafor, G.I. and Usman, G.O. (2012). Production and evaluation of breakfast cereals from blends of african yam bean (sphenostylis stenocarpa), maize (zea mays) and defatted coconut (cocus nucifera). Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 38 (2014) 1037–1043.
  • [12] Arendt, E.K., Zannini, E. (2013). Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industry. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge CB22 3HJ UK.
  • [13] Sawant, A.A., Thakor, N.J., Swami, S.B., Divate, A.D. (2013). Physical and sensory characteristics of Ready-To-Eat food prepared from finger millet based composite mixer by extrusion. Agric. Eng. Int. CIGR J. 15 (1), 100-105.
  • [14] AOAC. (2002). Official Methods of Analysis (30th edition). Washington: Association of Analytical Chemists.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Food Engineering
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Samuel OLORUNSOGO 0000-0001-6005-6450

Bolanle ADEJUMO 0000-0001-7598-3468

Publication Date December 30, 2023
Submission Date March 14, 2022
Acceptance Date January 17, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 7 Issue: 2

Cite

APA OLORUNSOGO, S., & ADEJUMO, B. (2023). Development and Statistical Optimization of Flakes from Selected Local Food Ingredients. Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering, 7(2), 40-52. https://doi.org/10.29002/asujse.1087727

Aksaray J. Sci. Eng. | e-ISSN: 2587-1277 | Period: Biannually | Founded: 2017 | Publisher: Aksaray University | https://asujse.aksaray.edu.tr




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